February 28, 2014
on today's daf
(page) teaches about situations where people can forgo the mitzvah
. According to the Mishnah, sheluhei mitzvah
– people occupied with performance of a mitzvah
– are not obligated in the commandment of sukka
. Also included on this list are people who are ill, together with their caretakers. Finally, the Mishnah teaches that only a formal meal needs to be eaten in the sukka
; a snack can be eaten outside of the sukka
The idea that ha-osek be-mitzvah patur min ha-mitzvah
– that someone engaged in a mitzvah
is free from his obligations in other commandments – is derived from a passage in keri'at shema.
We read in shema
that we are obligated to discuss the words of shema - be-shivtikha be-veitekha u-velekhtekha va-derekh –
when you are sitting in your home and when you are walking on your way. The emphasis on "your home" and "your way" teaches that when you are occupied in matters that are not your own choice, that is to say, matters that you are obligated to be involved with – i.e. mitzvot
– then you are not obligated in shema
, nor, for that matter, are you obligated in other mitzvot
One point that is not clear, and is the subject of debate among the poskim, is whether we apply the rule of ha-osek be-mitzvah patur min ha-mitzvah only in a case where performing the additional mitzvah will adversely affect fulfillment of the first mitzvah (for example, if spending time looking for a sukka will limit the amount of time the travelers will be able to devote to their travel, making fulfillment of the mitzvah take a longer time). Others argue that involvement in a mitzvah simply creates a situation whereby a new obligation cannot be imposed on the person who is already occupied with a mitzvah. According to this view, even if the second mitzvah can be done with no additional strain or effort, the person is still not obligated to do it.
This essay is based upon the insights and chidushim of Rabbi Steinsaltz, as published in the English version of the Koren Talmud Bavli with Commentary by Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz, and edited and adapted by Rabbi Shalom Berger. To learn more about the Steinsaltz Daf Yomi initiative, click here. To dedicate future editions of Steinsaltz Daf Yomi, perhaps in honor of a special occasion or in memory of a loved one, click here.