חורבן – “Destruction”. The word is mostly used to describe the fall of Jerusalem after the Roman siege in 70 CE and the destruction of the Second Temple.  We still mourn the loss of the Temple and the Second Temple on Tisha B’Av (the ninth of the month of Av) – the saddest day of the Jewish calendar. In modern times, ḥurban is also used to describe the Holocaust – the “European Destruction”.

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