five types of grain

The five species of grain native to biblical Israel: three types of wheat and two types of barley.

Wheat: שיפון shifon – einkorn; כוסמין Kusmin – farro; and חיטים Ḥittim – durum or bread wheat. Barley: שעורים Seorim and שיבולת שועל Shibbolet shual, distinguished by the number of rows of grain in each stalk.

Modern grains such as oats, spelt and rye have been included in the “Five” because they can be used to make chametz.

According to Rabbi Natan bar Yosef, these types of grain are considered dagan: any produce harvested at one time and placed in a pile. There is some confusion as to whether dagan is a more specific term than tevua, which according Rashba and others is the general term referring to “all produce that grows”. According to Rosh, rice is permitted as it is not placed into a pile.

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