רבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל :ַ Gamaliel II, son of Rabbi Shimon ben Gamaliel, also called Gamliel of Yavne. He was the first Nasi of the Sanhedrin after the fall of the Second Temple, and one of the most important tanna’im of that period. Rabban Gamliel’s father, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel the Elder, had also been Nasi of the Sanhedrin and one of the leaders of the nation during the rebellion against Rome. Under Rabban Gamliel’s leadership, the city of Yavne became an important spiritual center. The greatest of the Sages gathered around him, including his brother-in-law Rabbi Eliezer, Rabbi Yehoshua, Rabbi Akiva, and Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. Rabban Gamliel sought to create a spiritual center for the Jews that would unite the entire people, a role that had been filled by the Temple until its destruction. Therefore, he strove to enhance the prominence and central authority of the Sanhedrin and its Nasi.
In his time, and under his influence, some of the most important decisions in the history of Jewish spiritual life were made. These included the decision to follow Beit Hillel, the rejection of the halakhic system of Rabbi Eliezer, and the establishment of fixed formulas for prayers. Those halakhic decisions attributed to Rabban Gamliel reflect an uncompromising approach to halakha; in reaching his conclusions, he was faithful to his principles.
At least two of his sons were included among the Sages: Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel, who served as Nasi of the Sanhedrin after him, and Rabbi Ḥanina ben Gamliel.
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