is clear that when someone attempts to switch the sanctity from an animal that is intended to be a sacrifice onto a different animal, both animals will become sanctified. This action is referred to as temurah
and is forbidden by the Torah (see Vayikra 27:9-10
). The Torah does not make clear, however, what level of sanctity the second animal will attain. Does it merely become the property of the Temple
(kedushat bedek ha-bayit
), or does it attain a level of inherent holiness (kedushat ha-guf
)? And if it does attain inherent holiness, is it, too, destined for the altar
as was the original animal?
The first Mishnah
places animals whose sanctity came by means of temurah
in the same category as offspring that were born of mothers that were destined for the altar, ruling that the offspring of a korban shelamim
– a peace-offering – as well as the temurah
of such a sacrifice, are in the same category as the original animal. Thus the second animal will be brought as a sacrifice, which includes semikha
(the commandment that the individual who brings a sacrifice to the Temple
must place his hands on the animal’s head, between its horns, leaning on the animal with all of his strength), wine libations and the waving (giving to the priest) of the breast and shoulder of the animal.
The Mishnah applies this ruling to a korban shelamim, but it does not apply to all sacrifices. With regard to a korban hatat– a sin-offering – for example, the law is that neither the offspring of a korban hatat nor the temurah of a korban hatat can be brought on the altar and that the animal is left to die, since it cannot be used for any purpose – holy or mundane.